Punjab also known as Punj Aab, meaning Five water, the land of five rivers, Ravi, Chenab, Jhelum, Sutlej and Beyas. Punjab is part of the Indus Valley Civilization, more than 4000 years old; the main site in Punjab was the city of Harrapa. The Indus Valley Civilization spanned much of what is today Pakistan. It is a province with largest population in Pakistan.
The Punjab is amongst the most heavily irrigated in the world and irrigation canals can be found throughout the province. Weather extremes are notable from the hot and barren south to the cool hills of the north. The foothills of the Himalayas are found in the extreme north as well.
In 1947 the Punjab province was divided into West Punjab and East Punjab. Western Punjab was integrated into Pakistan, while East Punjab became a part of India.
Agriculture forms the largest sector of its economy producing most of Pakistan’s food and commercial crops. Wheat and cotton are the largest crops. Other crops include rice, sugarcane, millet, corn, oilseeds, pulses, vegetables, fruits, including livestock and poultry production.
Punjab is also a mineral-rich province with extensive mineral deposits of Coal, Iron, Gas, Crude, Rock Salt, Dolomites, gypsum and silica sand.
However, since 1948 Punjab industrialized rapidly with latest technologies and it has largest pool of professionals and highly skilled, technically trained, manpower in Pakistan.
Now, Punjab is the most industrialized province of Pakistan; it has more than 68 thousand industrial units, manufacturing industries include Textiles, Sports goods, Heavy machinery, Electrical appliances, Surgical instruments, Cement, Vehicles, Auto Parts, I.T, Metals, Sugar mill plants, Oil Refining, Aircraft, Military equipment, Cement Plants, Agriculture Machinery, Bicycles, Motorcycles, Rickshaws, Floor coverings, and processed foods. The province now manufacture 90% paper and paper boards, 71% fertilizers, 69% of the sugar and 40% cement of Pakistan.
Punjab is largest economy in Pakistan, contributing over 65% to the national GDP.
Most areas in Punjab experience extreme weather with foggy winters, often accompanied by rain. The temperature begins to rise by middle of February and spring continues until mid-April, after which time the summer season starts.